DeWitt Clinton High School, Bronx
Summer Research Program for Science Teachers
Subject: Living Environment (Biology)
Grade Level: 9 & 10
Lesson: Cooperative learning (3 students/group)
Ø Identify the source of genetic variation in a population.
Ø Explain how genetic variations are not always harmful.
Ø Describe how mutations can cause genetic disorders
Ø Demonstrate how mutations can cause genetic disorders.
Ø Handouts: Instructions handout, Changes to Genetic Code Handout, What is a Mutation Handout, Assessment homework handout
Ø Post-it Poster Boards/ Post-it Sheets
Mutations occur as random chance events. Gene mutations can also
There are two categories of mutations: Gene mutation and
Chromosomal mutation. Chromosomal
mutation is most severe since many inherited traits will be affected.
HANDOUTS AND BACKGROUND MATERIALS
a) Changes to Genetic Code Handout
b) What is a Mutation Handout
DNA Strand (Sentence)
Exploration: Students will fill out their group charts on the handout. Students will present to the class how they filled out their chart (handout). They will discuss each mutation type. Each group will observe all the findings posted to the poster boards representing the different mutation types. The group will use their observations to answer the following questions.
Question: “Which mutation type caused the most severe disease/disorders? Explain your answer.” Students will use their observation of the poster boards to support their answers.
Question: “Which mutation type caused the least severe disease/disorder? Explain your answer.” Students will use their observation of the poster boards to support their answers.Teacher note: On poster boards, write at top a specific mutation type. One mutation type for each poster board. Students will record their data by placing their Post-it notes on the appropriate poster board according to the instruction handout.
Analysis of Results: From group results, observations, and question responses, the students should be able to see the mutation types that are severe (i.e., sentences that don’t make sense) and mutation types that people can live with (i.e., sentences that have English words in them).
New York State Standards
Living Environment Core Curriculum
to resemble their parents, there must be a reliable way to transfer information
from one generation to the next. Heredity is the passage of these instructions from one
generation to another.
cell. An inherited trait of an individual can be determined by one or by many genes, and
a single gene can influence more than one trait. A human cell contains many thousands
of different genes in its nucleus.
organism are carried in DNA, a large molecule formed from subunits arranged in a
sequence with bases of four kinds (represented by A, G, C, and T). The chemical and
structural properties of DNA are the basis for how the genetic information that underlies
heredity is both encoded in genes (as a string of molecular bases) and replicated
by means of a template.
used to direct the synthesis of the thousands of proteins that each cell requires.
mutation. Usually, an altered gene will be passed on to every cell that develops from it.
assembles, mostly proteins. Protein molecules are long, usually folded chains made
from 20 different kinds of amino acids in a specific sequence. This sequence influences
the shape of the protein. The shape of the protein, in turn, determines its function.
the production of proteins that form similar structures and perform similar functions.
though they are all descended from a single cell and thus have essentially identical
genetic instructions. This is because different parts of these instructions are used in
different types of cells, and are influenced by the cells environment and past history.
may be passed on to every cell that develops from it.
finding genes which may have mutations that can cause disease will aid in the development
of preventive measures to fight disease. Substances, such as hormones and
enzymes, from genetically engineered organisms may reduce the cost and side effects of
replacing missing body chemicals.
harmless environmental substances. Sometimes the immune system may attack some of
the body's own cells or transplanted organs.